In 2015 alone, America lost 2,824 young people between the ages of 0 and 19 to gun violence — and this doesn’t include thousands of other non-fatal injuries.1 More than 1,100 of these gun-related deaths were either suicides or unintentional shootings. Research shows that easily accessible firearms in the home are associated with an increase of both suicide and unintentional deaths for young people. Child access prevention (CAP) laws are an important tool for reducing these preventable shootings and suicides by our country’s youth.
CAP laws address this problem and encourage the safe storage of firearms by imposing liability on adults who allow children to have unsupervised access to guns. Researchers have found that millions of children live in homes with easily accessible firearms. A 2018 study found that 4.6 million minors in the US live in homes with at least one loaded, unlocked firearm.2 Approximately one-third of handguns are kept loaded and unlocked, and most children know where their parents keep their guns — even if their parents think otherwise.3 In a 2006 study, 73% of children under age 10 living in homes with guns reported knowing the location of their parents’ firearms, and 36% admitted they had handled the weapons. These reports directly contradicted 39% of parents who reported that their children did not know the storage location of household guns and 22% of parents who claimed that their children had never handled a household gun.4
The presence of unlocked guns in the home increases the risk of unintentional gun injuries and intentional shootings — especially suicides. A 1999 study found that more than 75% of the guns used in youth suicide attempts and unintentional injuries were stored in the residence of the victim, a relative, or a friend.5 Several studies have shown that the risk of suicide increases in homes where guns are kept loaded and/or unlocked.6
Unsecured firearms in the home also play a role in deadly school shootings. In July 2004, the US Secret Service and US Department of Education published a study examining 37 school shootings from 1974-2000 that found that in more than 65% of cases, the attacker got the gun from his or her own home or that of a relative.7
For more information about the storage of firearms, see our summary on Safe Storage.
CAP laws have been shown to be effective at reducing suicides and unintentional firearm deaths and injuries of children.
- One study found that in twelve states where such laws had been in effect for at least one year, unintentional firearm deaths fell by 23% from 1990-94 among children under 15 years of age.8
- A 2004 study evaluating the association between CAP laws and suicides among youth found that such laws were associated with an 8.3% decrease in suicides among 14-17 year olds.9
- A 2005 study found that the practices of keeping firearms locked and unloaded, as well as storing ammunition in a locked location separate from firearms, serve as a protective measure to reduce youth suicide and unintentional injury in homes with children and teenagers where guns are stored.10
- A study published in 2013 looked at hospital discharge data and found that CAP laws are associated with reductions in nonfatal gun injuries among children under age 18.11
However, despite the strong evidence of the protective effect of CAP laws, there are still 23 states that do not have these laws on the books, and there are no CAP laws at the federal level.
Summary of Federal Law
There are no CAP laws at the federal level, and federal law does not generally require gun owners to safely store their guns. Federal law does, however, make it unlawful for any licensed importer, manufacturer or dealer to sell or transfer any handgun unless the transferee is provided with a “secure gun storage or safety device,”12 and immunizes the lawful owner of a handgun who uses a secure gun storage or safety device from certain civil actions based on the criminal or unlawful misuse of the handgun by a third party.13 For further details, see our summary on Safe Storage. Federal and state laws imposing a minimum age for the purchase and possession of firearms are discussed in our summary on the Minimum Age to Purchase and Possess Firearms.14
Summary of State Law
Twenty-seven states and DC have enacted child access prevention laws.
States with Child Access Prevention Laws
District of Columbia19
Washington (effective July 1, 2019)42
Description of State Child Access Prevention Laws
For citations to these laws, please see the list above.
CAP laws take a variety of forms. The strongest laws impose criminal liability when a minor is likely to gain access to a negligently stored firearm regardless of whether the minor actually gains access (California). The weakest merely prohibit certain persons, such as parents or guardians, from directly providing a firearm to a minor (Utah). There is a wide range of laws that fall somewhere between these extremes, including laws that impose criminal liability for negligently stored firearms, but only where the child uses the firearm and causes death or serious injury. Weaker laws impose penalties only in the event of reckless, knowing or intentional conduct by the adult. State CAP laws also differ on the definition of “minor.”
Laws Imposing Criminal Liability when a Child Gains Access as a Result of Negligent Storage of a Firearm
Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have laws that impose criminal liability on persons who negligently store firearms, where minors could or do gain access to the firearm. Typically, these laws apply whenever the person “knows or reasonably should know” that a child is likely to gain access to the firearm.
State Laws Based on Negligent Storage
District of Columbia
There are a number of variations in these types of laws, including whether the child must use the firearm, and whether the firearm must be loaded. The most significant variations are described below:
States Imposing Criminal Liability for Allowing a Child to Gain Access
The broadest laws apply regardless of whether the child even gains possession of the firearm. California, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and the District of Columbia impose criminal liability in circumstances where a child may (Massachusetts) or is likely to (California, Minnesota, District of Columbia) gain access to a firearm. The laws in Hawaii,44 Maryland, New Jersey, and Texas apply whenever a child gains access to an improperly stored firearm. In these states, it is not necessary for the child to actually use the firearm or cause any injury.
States Imposing Criminal Liability When a Child “May” or “Is Likely To” Gain Access to the Firearm
District of Columbia
States Imposing Criminal Liability for Allowing a Child to Gain Access to the Firearm, Regardless of Whether the Child Uses the Firearm or Causes Injury
District of Columbia
States Imposing Criminal Liability Only if the Child Uses or Carries the Firearm
Seven states require that the child carry or use the firearm in some way before criminal liability attaches. In Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, North Carolina, and Rhode Island, the statute applies when the child uses the firearm to cause death or serious injury. Iowa, Florida, New Hampshire, and North Carolina also impose criminal liability when the minor takes the firearm to a public place, and/or uses the firearm in a threatening manner. The New Hampshire and North Carolina statutes also impose criminal liability when the child uses the firearm in the commission of a crime.
States Imposing Criminal Liability Only if a Child Uses or Carries the Firearm
States Imposing Criminal Liability for the Negligent Storage of Unloaded Firearms
Hawaii, Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia impose criminal liability even if the firearm is unloaded. In the case of handguns only, California imposes criminal liability when the child carries a loaded or unloaded handgun off-premises. All other states only impose criminal liability if the firearm is loaded.
States Imposing Criminal Liability for Negligent Storage of Unloaded Firearms
District of Columbia
States allow several exceptions to their child access prevention laws. The most common exception applies where the firearm is stored in a locked container (California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina,46 Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington). Another common exception applies where the minor gains access to the firearm via illegal entry of the premises (California, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington). Other exceptions include cases where the firearm is used for hunting, sport shooting or agricultural purposes, where the minor uses the gun in defense of self or others, where the firearm is used to aid law enforcement, or where the child has completed a firearm safety course.
States Preventing Persons from Intentionally, Knowingly, and/or Recklessly Providing Firearms to Minors
Several states impose a weaker standard for criminal liability when a child is allowed to access a firearm. Thirteen states only prohibit persons from intentionally, knowingly, and/or recklessly providing some or all firearms to children (these laws exclude negligence, which is the lowest threshold for liability).
State Laws Prohibiting Intentional, Knowing, or Reckless Provision of Firearms to Minors
Lesser standard for parents or guardians: Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Utah impose a lesser standard on parents and guardians, providing that parents may be guilty for providing firearms to children only where they know of a substantial risk that the minor will use the firearm to commit a crime.
Definition of “Minor”
The age which triggers a state’s CAP law varies, ranging from children under 14 to those under 18.
Under 18: California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah, and Washington
Under 17: Texas
Under 16: Connecticut,54 Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Rhode Island
Under 14: Illinois, Iowa, Virginia, and Wisconsin
States Requiring that All Firearms be Stored with a Locking Device in Place
Massachusetts requires that all firearms be stored with locking devices in place to prevent accidental discharge. This type of law is another important means to protect children from gaining unauthorized access to firearms and causing death or injury.55 Additional information about these kinds of laws is contained in our summary on Safe Storage.
States Imposing Civil Liability on Persons Who Fail to Store Firearms Properly
California56 imposes civil liability on the parent or guardian of a minor for damages resulting from the minor’s discharge of a firearm, where the parent or guardian permitted the minor to have the firearm or left it accessible to the minor. Connecticut imposes strict liability in civil actions on persons who fail to store firearms securely, where a minor gains access and causes injury or death.
In Illinois, when a minor under the age of 21 legally acquires a firearms license by obtaining the permission of a parent or guardian, that parent or guardian becomes liable for civil claims for damages resulting from the minor’s use of firearms or ammunition.
In Nevada, a parent or guardian is jointly and severally liable with the minor for civil damages caused by permitting the minor to possess a firearm, where the parent or guardian knows that the minor has a propensity to commit violent acts or has been previously adjudicated delinquent or has been convicted of a criminal offense, or knows or has reason to know that the minor intends to use the firearm for an unlawful purpose.57
Key Legislative Elements
The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered. A jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.
- Criminal liability is imposed on persons who negligently store firearms under circumstances where minors could gain access to the firearm, regardless of whether the minor actually gains access to or uses the firearm (California, Massachusetts, Minnesota, District of Columbia).
- Criminal liability is imposed on persons who negligently store firearms even when the firearm is unloaded (Hawaii, Massachusetts, District of Columbia).
- Civil liability for damages resulting from the discharge of a firearm is imposed on persons who negligently store firearms when a minor gains access (California).
- “Minor” is defined as a child under the age of 18 for long guns (Colorado, Delaware, Indiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Utah), and a person under the age of 21 for handguns, for purposes of the CAP law.
- All firearms are required to be stored with a locking device in place (Massachusetts).
- “Web-Based Injury Statistics Query & Reporting System (WISQARS) Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2015, for National, Regional, and States,” Nat’l Ctr. for Injury Prevention & Control, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Accessed February 22, 2017, https://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/dataRestriction_inj.html. ⤴︎
- Deborah Azrael, Joanna Cohen, Carmel Salhi, and Matthew Miller, “Firearm Storage in Gun-owning Households with Children: Results of a 2015 National Survey.” Journal of Urban Health (2018): 1-10. ⤴︎
- Philip J. Cook & Jens Ludwig, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Nat’l Inst. of Justice, Guns in America: National Survey on Private Ownership and Use of Firearms (1997): 7, https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165476.pdf. ⤴︎
- Frances Baxley & Matthew Miller, “Parental Misperceptions About Children and Firearms,” 160 Archives Of Pediatric & Adolescent Med. (2006): 542, 544. ⤴︎
- David C. Grossman, Donald T. Reay & Stephanie A. Baker, “Self-Inflicted and Unintentional Firearm Injuries Among Children and Adolescents: The Source of the Firearm,” 153 Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. (Aug. 1999): 875, http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/347593. ⤴︎
- Matthew Miller and David Hemenway, “The Relationship Between Firearms and Suicide: A Review of the Literature,” 4 Aggression & Violent Behavior (1999): 59, 62-65 (summarizing the findings of multiple studies); see also Daniel W. Webster et al., “Association Between Youth-Focused Firearm Laws & Youth Suicides,” 292 JAMA (Aug. 2004): 594, 596-98, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15292085. ⤴︎
- U.S. Secret Service & U.S. Dep’t of Education, The Final Report & Findings of the Safe School Initiative – Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States (July 2004), 27, http://www2.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/preventingattacksreport.pdf. ⤴︎
- Peter Cummings et al., “State Gun Safe Storage Laws and Child Mortality Due to Firearms,” 278 JAMA (Oct. 1997): 1084, http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/418289. ⤴︎
- Daniel W. Webster et al., Association Between Youth-Focused Firearm Laws & Youth Suicides, 292 JAMA 594, 596-98 (Aug. 2004), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15292085. ⤴︎
- David C. Grossman et al., “Gun Storage Practices and Risk of Youth Suicide and Unintentional Firearm Injuries,” 293 JAMA (2005): 707, 711-13, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.514.2207&rep=rep1&type=pdf. ⤴︎
- Jeff DeSimone et al., “Child Access Prevention Laws and Nonfatal Gun Injuries,” 80 Southern Economic Journal (2013):5, 5-25, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4284/0038-4038-2011.333/abstract. ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 922(z)(1). A “secure gun storage or safety device” is defined under 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(34) as: (A) a device that, when installed on a firearm, is designed to prevent the firearm from being operated without first deactivating the device; (B) a device incorporated into the design of the firearm that is designed to prevent the operation of the firearm by anyone not having access to the device; or (C) a safe, gun safe, gun case, lock box, or other device that is designed to be or can be used to store a firearm and that is designed to be unlocked only by means of a key, a combination, or other similar means. ⤴︎
- 18 U.S.C. § 922(z)(3). ⤴︎
- Federal law prohibits federally licensed firearms dealers from transferring handguns to persons under age 21 and long guns to persons under age 18. It is also illegal for anyone to transfer a handgun to a person under age 18, with certain exceptions, such with the prior written consent of the minor’s parent or guardian. 18 U.S.C. §§ 922(b)(1), 922(x)(1). ⤴︎
- Cal. Penal Code §§ 25000-25225; Cal. Civ. Code § 1714.3. ⤴︎
- Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-108.7. ⤴︎
- Conn. Gen. Stat §§ 29-37i, 52-571g, 53a-217a. ⤴︎
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 603, 1456. ⤴︎
- D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2507.02(b)-(d). ⤴︎
- Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.174. ⤴︎
- Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-101.1. ⤴︎
- Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 134-10.5, 707-714.5. ⤴︎
- 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(c); 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-9(a). ⤴︎
- Ind. Code Ann. §§ 35-47-10-3, 35-47-10-6, 35-47-10-7. ⤴︎
- Iowa Code § 724.22(7). ⤴︎
- Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.110. ⤴︎
- Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-104. ⤴︎
- Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 131L. ⤴︎
- Minn. Stat. § 609.666. ⤴︎
- Miss. Code Ann. §§ 97-37-14, 97-37-15. ⤴︎
- Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.060.1(2). ⤴︎
- Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 41.472, 202.300(1) – (3). ⤴︎
- N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 650-C:1. ⤴︎
- N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-15. ⤴︎
- N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-315.1. ⤴︎
- Okla. Stat. tit. 21, § 1273(B). ⤴︎
- R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-60.1. ⤴︎
- Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1319, 39-17-1320. ⤴︎
- Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 46.13. ⤴︎
- Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-509.6. ⤴︎
- Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-56.2. ⤴︎
- Washington Initiative 1639. Washington’s law applies to all people prohibited from possessing firearms, not just children. ⤴︎
- Wis. Stat. § 948.55. ⤴︎
- While Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-10.5 appears to criminalize negligent storage when a child is likely to gain access to a firearm, Haw. Rev. Stat. § 707-714.5 only provides penalties if the child actually gains access to a firearm. ⤴︎
- North Carolina’s statute only applies to the negligent storage of firearms by persons who reside with a minor. ⤴︎
- In North Carolina, liability is imposed if the firearm is stored or left “in a condition that the firearm can be discharged.” ⤴︎
- Nevada makes it a crime to “aid or knowingly permit” a child to possess a firearm, except for hunting, target practice or other purposes, under the immediate supervision of an authorized adult. ⤴︎
- Utah’s law applies only to parents and guardians. ⤴︎
- In Delaware, the minor must use the firearm to cause death or serious injury. ⤴︎
- Wisconsin’s law applies only where the minor uses the firearm to cause death or serious injury, or exhibits the firearm in a public place. ⤴︎
- Virginia also prohibits any person from knowingly authorizing a child under 12 to use a firearm, except when supervised by an adult. ⤴︎
- Colorado prohibits providing firearms other than handguns to minors without parental consent. ⤴︎
- Mississippi’s statute applies only to parents and guardians. ⤴︎
- In 2013, Connecticut expanded its safe storage provisions to apply to persons other than minors. Now, a firearm owner must store any loaded firearm on premises under his or her control if he or she knows or reasonably should know that a resident of the premises: 1) is ineligible to possess a firearm under state or federal law; or 2) poses a risk of imminent personal injury to himself or herself or to other individuals. ⤴︎
- Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 131L(a). ⤴︎
- In October 2005, as part of the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act (PLCAA), Congress passed and the President signed a law immunizing any person from a “qualified civil liability action” who is in lawful possession and control of a handgun and who uses a secure gun storage or safety device with the handgun. 18 U.S.C. § 922(z). “Qualified civil liability action” is defined as a civil action for damages resulting from the criminal or unlawful misuse of a handgun by a third party if: (A) the handgun was accessed by another person who did not have the authorization of the lawful possessor; and (B) at the time the handgun was accessed it had been made inoperable by the use of a secure gun storage or safety device. 18 U.S.C. § 922(z)(3). ⤴︎
- In addition, Hawaii imposes absolute liability on the owner of a firearm if the discharge of the firearm causes injury to any person or property. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 663-9.5. ⤴︎