Ammunition Regulation in Illinois

License to Sell Ammunition

Illinois does not require ammunition sellers to obtain a license or maintain records of ammunition purchasers.

License to Purchase/Possess Ammunition

Illinois requires residents to obtain a Firearm Owner’s Identification (“FOID”) card before they can lawfully purchase or possess ammunition.1 No person may transfer firearm ammunition in Illinois unless the transferee displays a currently valid FOID card.2

For detailed information on the requirements for a FOID card, see Licensing of Gun Owners & Purchasers in Illinois section.

Any resident purchasing ammunition outside the state must provide the seller with a copy of his or her valid FOID card and either his or her Illinois driver’s license or Illinois State Identification card prior to the shipment of the ammunition. The ammunition may be shipped only to an address on either of those two documents.3

People Prohibited from Purchasing or Possessing Ammunition

Illinois prohibit the purchase or possession of ammunition by the same categories of people who are ineligible to purchase or possess firearms under state law.4

Federal ammunition purchaser prohibitions also apply.

Minimum Age to Purchase or Possess Ammunition

Illinois generally prohibits persons under age 21 from obtaining a FOID card, which is required to purchase or possess ammunition.5 A person under age 21 must have the written consent of a parent or legal guardian to purchase ammunition.6

Safe Storage of Ammunition

Illinois does not generally require firearm owners to safely store ammunition. However, ammunition kept or stored in child day care facilities, foster homes or similar locations must be kept in locked storage separate from firearms and inaccessible to children.7

Regulation of Unreasonably Dangerous Ammunition

Illinois prohibits the knowing manufacture, sale, purchase, possession, or carrying of any armor-piercing bullet, dragon’s breath shotgun shell, bolo shell, or flechette shell.8

Illinois also bans the knowing manufacture, sale, offer of sale, or other transfer of any bullet or shell which is represented to be an armor piercing bullet, a dragon’s breath shotgun shell, a bolo shell, or a flechette shell.9

Illinois prohibits the reckless use or discharge of an armor-piercing bullet, flechette shell, dragon’s breath shell or bolo shell.10 The state also prohibits the possession, concealed on or about the person, of an armor piercing bullet, dragon’s breath shotgun shell, bolo shell, or flechette shell.11

Illinois prohibits the sale, manufacture or acquisition and possession of exploding ammunition.12 “Explosive bullet” means the projectile portion of an ammunition cartridge which contains or carries an explosive charge which will explode upon contact with the flesh of a human or an animal. “Cartridge” means a tubular metal case having a projectile affixed at the front thereof and a cap or primer at the rear end thereof, with the propellant contained in such tube between the projectile and the cap.13

Federal law also prohibits certain kinds of armor-piercing ammunition.

See our Ammunition Regulation policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(2). ⤴︎
  2. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3(a). ⤴︎
  3. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3(b-5). ⤴︎
  4. See 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(2), 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4, 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8. ⤴︎
  5. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(2); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(a)(2)(i). ⤴︎
  6. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(a)(2). Federal age restrictions for the purchase and possession of ammunition also exist. ⤴︎
  7. 225 Ill. Comp. Stat. 10/7(a)(14). ⤴︎
  8. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-2.1(a). “Armor piercing bullet” means any handgun bullet or handgun ammunition with projectiles or projectile cores constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper or depleted uranium, or fully jacketed bullets larger than 22 caliber designed and intended for use in a handgun and whose jacket has a weight of more than 25% of the total weight of the projectile, excluding those handgun projectiles whose cores are composed of soft materials such as lead or lead alloys, zinc or zinc alloys, frangible projectiles designed primarily for sporting purposes. “Dragon’s breath shotgun shell” means any shotgun shell that contains exothermic pyrophoric mesh metal as the projectile and is designed for the purpose of throwing or spewing a flame or fireball to simulate a flame-thrower. “Bolo shell” means any shell that can be fired in a firearm and expels as projectiles two or more metal balls connected by solid metal wire. “Flechette shell” means any shell that can be fired in a firearm and expels two or more pieces of fin-stabilized solid metal wire or two or more solid dart-type projectiles. Id. ⤴︎
  9. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-2.2. ⤴︎
  10. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3.2(a), (b). ⤴︎
  11. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3.2(c). ⤴︎
  12. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(11); 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3.1(a)(6). ⤴︎
  13. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3.1(a)(6). ⤴︎

Assault Weapons in Illinois

Illinois has no law restricting assault weapons.

However, some local jurisdictions within the state, such as the City of Highland Park, have enacted local ordinances that restrict the possession and sale of assault weapons.1

See our Assault Weapons policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. See, e.g., Highland Park City Code, Chapter 136. ⤴︎

Background Checks in Illinois

See our Background Checks policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Federal law requires federally licensed firearms dealers (but not private sellers) to initiate a background check on the purchaser prior to sale of a firearm. Federal law provides states with the option of serving as a state “point of contact” and conducting their own background checks using state, as well as federal, records and databases, or having the checks performed by the FBI using only the federal National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database. (Note that state files are not always included in the federal database.)

Illinois is a point of contact state for the NICS.1 Federally licensed firearms dealers in the state are required to contact the Illinois Department of State Police (“DSP”) for a background check before transferring any firearm.2 The DSP searches its criminal history record information files, the FBI and NICS databases, and the files of the Department of Human Services relating to mental health and developmental disabilities to verify that prospective purchasers are not prohibited from possessing a firearm.3 The DSP must approve the transfer or inform the dealer of the applicant’s ineligibility within the waiting periods set forth by state law, which are 24 hours for long guns and 72 hours for handguns.4 (Note, however, that effective June 2019, the waiting period will be 72 hours for all firearms).5

Illinois requires DSP to report to local law enforcement the name and address of any person who attempts to purchase a firearm who is disqualified from doing so.6

Except at gun shows (see the Gun Shows in Illinois section for more information on background check requirements at gun shows), unlicensed gun sellers (i.e., people who do not have a federal firearms dealer license) are not required to conduct background checks in Illinois, but all sellers must be presented with a prospective purchaser’s Firearm Owner’s Identification card.7 Additionally, with limited exceptions, an unlicensed seller who seeks to transfer a firearm to an unlicensed purchaser is generally required to contact the Department of State Police (DSP) with the transferee’s Firearm Owner’s Identification (FOID) Card number to determine the validity of the transferee’s FOID Card prior to transferring the gun.8 Federal and state purchaser prohibitions also apply to private firearms transfers.

See our Private Sales policy summary for more on this issue.

Notes
  1. Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Instant Criminal Background Check System Participation Map, at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/nics/general-information/participation-map. ⤴︎
  2. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3.1. ⤴︎
  3. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3.1. ⤴︎
  4. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3.1; 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3(A)(g). ⤴︎
  5. See 2017 IL S 3256, enacted in 2018. ⤴︎
  6. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3.3. ⤴︎
  7. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3(a). ⤴︎
  8. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3(a-10). ⤴︎

Child Access Prevention in Illinois

Illinois prohibits any person from storing or leaving his or her firearm unlocked and accessible to a minor under the age of 14 if that person knows or has reason to believe that the minor under the age of 14 who does not have a Firearm Owner’s Identification (“FOID”) card is likely to gain access to the firearm and the minor causes death or great bodily harm with that firearm.1 This provision does not apply if the firearm is: 1) secured by a device, other than the firearm safety, designed to render the firearm temporarily inoperable; 2) placed in a securely locked box or container; or 3) placed in some other location that a reasonable person would believe to be secured from a minor under the age of 14.2 The prohibition also is inapplicable to any firearm obtained by a minor because of an unlawful entry of the premises by the minor or another person, or if the minor gains access to a firearm and uses it in a lawful act of self-defense or defense of another.3

When a minor under the age of 21 legally acquires a FOID card by obtaining the permission of a parent or guardian, that parent or guardian becomes liable for civil claims for damages resulting from the minor’s use of firearms or ammunition.4

See our Child Access Prevention policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-9(a). ⤴︎
  2. Id. ⤴︎
  3. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-9(c). ⤴︎
  4. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(c). ⤴︎

Concealed Weapons Permitting in Illinois

See our Concealed Weapons Permitting policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

On July 9, 2013, Illinois adopted the Firearm Concealed Carry Act1 allowing individuals with a valid license to carry a concealed handgun in public.2 A license is not needed to carry a concealed handgun on a person’s own property, including his or her home or fixed place of business.3 Nor is a license needed to carry a concealed handgun on the land or in the home of another person, as long as it is with that person’s permission.4 Apart from the exceptions listed above, a concealed handgun may only be carried in public if the firearm is not in working condition, not immediately accessible, or is carried unloaded in an enclosed container by a person with a valid FOID Card.5

Illinois is a “shall issue” state,6 which means the Department of State Police (DSP) must issue a concealed handgun license it if the applicant meets the following qualifications:7

  • Is at least 21 years old;8
  • Has a currently valid Firearm Owner’s Identification (FOID) Card and at the time of application meets the requirements for the issuance of a FOID Card, and is not prohibited under Illinois or federal law from possessing a firearm;9
  • Has not been convicted or found guilty in Illinois or any other state of:
    • A misdemeanor involving the use or threat of physical force or violence to any person within five years preceding the date of the license application;10 or
    • Two or more violations related to driving while under the influence of alcohol, drugs, intoxicating compounds, or any combination thereof within the five years preceding the date of the license application;11
  • Is not the subject of a pending arrest warrant, prosecution, or proceeding for an offense or action that could lead to disqualification to own or possess a firearm;12
  • Has not been in residential or court-ordered treatment for alcoholism, alcohol detoxification, or drug treatment within the five years preceding the date of the license application; and13
  • Has completed the required firearms training.14

In addition, the applicant must show in the application that he or she has not:

  • Been convicted of a felony;15 and
  • Failed a drug test for a drug which the applicant did not have a prescription within the previous year.16

DSP will conduct a background check on the applicant reviewing all relevant and available federal, state, and local records.17

Any law enforcement agency may submit an objection to a license applicant based upon a reasonable suspicion that the applicant is a danger to himself or herself or others, or a threat to public safety.18 The Concealed Carry Licensing Review Board will consider any objection to an applicant’s eligibility to obtain a license submitted by a law enforcement agency or DSP.19

It is unlawful for a person who is a “street gang member” to knowingly possess, carry, or conceal a firearm on or about his or her person while on any street, road, or other lands (i.e. outside his or her home or fixed place of business) without a valid FOID Card.20 It is also illegal for a “street gang member” without a valid FOID Card to possess or carry any firearm or ammunition that is immediately accessible in a vehicle located on any street, road, or other lands, except inside the person’s home or garage.21

Firearms Safety Training

An applicant for a new license to carry a concealed firearm must provide proof of completion of at least 16 hours of a firearms training course (or combination of courses) approved by DSP.22 The training must cover the following:

  • Firearm safety;23
  • Basic principles of marksmanship;24
  • Care, cleaning, loading, and unloading of a concealable firearm;25
  • All applicable Illinois and federal laws relating to the ownership, storage, carrying, and transportation of a firearm;26 and
  • Instruction on the appropriate and lawful interaction with law enforcement while transporting or carrying a concealed firearm.27 In addition, an applicant for a new license must provide proof of certification by a certified instructor that the applicant passed a live fire exercise with a concealable firearm consisting of:28 1) A minimum of 30 rounds;29 and 2) 10 rounds from a distance of 5 yards, 10 rounds from a distance of 7 yards, and 10 rounds from a distance of 10 yards at a target approved by DSP.30

DSP and certified firearms instructors recognize up to eight hours of training already completed toward the 16-hour training requirement if the training course is approved by DSP and recognized under the laws of another state.31 DSP accepts up to eight hours of training as completed toward the 16-hour training requirement if the applicant is an active, retired, or honorably discharged member of the United States Armed Forces.32

A certified firearms instructor who knowingly provides or offers to provide a false certification that an applicant has completed required firearms training is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor and the Department of State Police must revoke that instructor’s certification.33

Duration and Renewal

The license is valid for five years from the date of issuance.34 A license will be renewed for a period of five years upon receipt of a completed renewal application which includes a new background check.35 An applicant renewing his or her license must provide proof of completion of at least three hours of a firearms training course or combination of courses approved by DSP.36 An applicant for a renewal must submit a $150 fee.37

Reciprocity

A resident of a state or territory approved by DSP with firearm ownership, possession, and carrying laws that are substantially similar to Illinois’ requirements to obtain a license under the Firearm Concealed Carry Act may apply for a non-resident license.38

Disclosure or Use of Information

DSP maintains a database of license applicants and licensees. The database is available to all federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies, State’s Attorneys, the Attorney General, and authorized court personnel.39 No law enforcement agency, State’s Attorney, Attorney General, or member or staff of the judiciary is to provide any information to a requester who is not entitled to it by law.40

Firearms instructors must maintain a record of each student’s performance for at least five years, and must make all records available to authorized personnel of DSP.41

The Concealed Carry Licensing Review Board reports monthly to the Governor and the General Assembly on the number of objections received, and provides details of the circumstances in which the Board has denied licensure based on the objections of law enforcement or DSP.42 The report shall not contain any identifying information about the applicants.43 Meetings of the Board are not subject to the state Open Meetings Act and records of the Board are not subject to the state Freedom of Information Act.44

 

Notes
  1. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/1 et seq. ⤴︎
  2. See 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/5. ⤴︎
  3. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 5/24-1(4). ⤴︎
  4. Id. ⤴︎
  5. Id. ⤴︎
  6. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/10(a). ⤴︎
  7. Id., 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25. ⤴︎
  8. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(1). ⤴︎
  9. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(2). ⤴︎
  10. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(3)(A). ⤴︎
  11. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(3)(B). ⤴︎
  12. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(4). ⤴︎
  13. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(5). ⤴︎
  14. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/25(6). ⤴︎
  15. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/30(b)(5)(A). ⤴︎
  16. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/30(b)(6).  If the applicant has failed such drug test, the provider of the test, the specific substance involved, and the date of the test must be included in the application. ⤴︎
  17. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/35. ⤴︎
  18. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/15(a). ⤴︎
  19. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/20. ⤴︎
  20. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 5/24-1.8. ⤴︎
  21. Id. “Street gang member” means “any person who actually and in fact belongs to a gang, and any person who knowingly acts in the capacity of an agent for or accessory to, or is legally accountable for, or voluntarily associates himself with a course or pattern of gang-related criminal activity, whether in a preparatory, executory, or cover-up phase of any activity, or who knowingly performs, aids, or abets any such activity.” 740 ILCS 147/10. ⤴︎
  22. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(b). ⤴︎
  23. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(b)(1). ⤴︎
  24. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(b)(2). ⤴︎
  25. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(b)(3). ⤴︎
  26. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(b)(4). ⤴︎
  27. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(b)(5). ⤴︎
  28. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(c). ⤴︎
  29. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(c)(1). ⤴︎
  30. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(c)(2). ⤴︎
  31. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(g). ⤴︎
  32. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(i). ⤴︎
  33. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/70(i). ⤴︎
  34. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/10(c). ⤴︎
  35. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/50. ⤴︎
  36. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(d). ⤴︎
  37. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/60(b). ⤴︎
  38. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/40(b), (c). ⤴︎
  39. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/10(i). ⤴︎
  40. Id. ⤴︎
  41. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 66/75(f). ⤴︎
  42. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/20(i). ⤴︎
  43. Id. ⤴︎
  44. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/20(h). ⤴︎

Dealer Regulations in Illinois

See our Dealer Regulations policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

In January 2019, Illinois enacted the “Combating Illegal Gun Trafficking Act,” a law to comprehensively license and regulate firearm dealers in the state.1 When fully implemented, this law will subject Illinois gun dealers to various statutory requirements as described below, concerning:

  • Dealer licensing;
  • Employee training;
  • Location restrictions
  • Posted notifications;
  • Store security; and
  • Recordkeeping.

Dealer Licensing

Federal law generally requires people who“engage in the business” of dealing firearms to obtain a federal firearms dealer license from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives (ATF),2 although resource limitations prevent the ATF from properly overseeing many of its licensees.  Federal law states that the term “engaged in the business” means:

[A] person who devotes time, attention, and labor to dealing in firearms as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit through the repetitive purchase and resale of firearms, but such term shall not include a person who makes occasional sales, exchanges, or purchases of firearms for the enhancement of a personal collection or for a hobby, or who sells all or part of his personal collection of firearms.3  

Effective in June 2019, Illinois law will also require any person or entity who “engages in the business” of selling, leasing, or otherwise transferring firearms in the state to have a valid “certificate of license” issued by the Illinois Department of State Police.4

There are several exceptions to this requirement, which allow people to routinely sell, lease, or transfer firearms without a certificate of license in certain circumstances.5. These include:

  • Transfers of firearms among immediate family or household members who hold valid FOID Cards;6
  • Temporary firearm transfers where firearms are used solely at the location or property where the transfer takes place, such as when a shooting range leases firearms for use at their facility; and
  • Temporary firearm transfers for the purposes of safety training by a firearms safety training instructor.7

Qualifications for a License

In order to receive a “certificate of license” from the Department of State Police, a person or entity must:

  • Have a valid federal firearms dealer license8;
  • Have a valid Illinois Firearm Owner’s Identification (FOID) Card;9; and
  • Submit an affidavit stating that each owner, employee, or agent of the licensee who sells or conducts transfers of firearms is at least 21 years old and has a valid FOID Card;10

License Renewals

Dealers are required to renew their certification with the Department of State Police whenever they renew their federal firearms dealer license.11  When renewing a certification, Illinois law will also require licensees to submit an affidavit stating that that each owner, employee, or agent of the licensee who sells or conducts transfers of firearms has completed at least 2 hours of training annually regarding legal requirements and responsible business practices related to gun sales and transfers.12

Employee Training

As described above, licensees and their employees must receive at least two hours of training annually regarding legal requirements and responsible business practices related to the sale and transfer of firearms.13  The Department of State Police is authorized to adopt rules regarding this continuing education requirement, and is also directed by law to develop and implement statewide training standards for assisting licensees in recognizing indicators “that would lead a reasonable dealer to refuse sale of a firearm, including, but not limited to, indicators of a straw purchase.”14

Location Restrictions

Illinois law prohibits certified licensees from opening a new “retail location” within 500 feet of a school, preschool or daycare facility that is already in existence near the location.15  A “retail location” is “a store open to the public from which a certified licensee engages in the business of selling, transferring, or facilitating a sale or transfer of a firearm[,]” but does not include events like gun shows where a licensee engages in business “from time to time.”16

Posted Notifications

Dealers are required to post a sign in a conspicuous area on their premises displaying the following notification:

“With few exceptions enumerated in the Firearm Owners Identification Card Act, it is unlawful for you to:

(A) store or leave an unsecured firearm in a place where a child can obtain access to it;

(B) sell or transfer your firearm to someone else without receiving approval for the transfer from the Department of State Police, or

(C) fail to report the loss or theft of your firearm to local law enforcement within 72 hours.”17

The sign may be downloaded from the Department of State Police’s website but must be posted in block letters not less than one inch in height.18

Store Security

By January 2, 2020 all certified licensees that maintain an inventory of firearms19 must install an alarm monitoring system that notifies local law enforcement regarding any unauthorized intrusion into the premises where a firearm inventory is maintained.20

By January 2, 2021 all certified licensees that operate a retail location21 must also install and maintain a video security system that records areas in the retail location where the dealer’s firearms are stored, handled, sold, or transferred, as well as any entrances and exits.22  These video records must be retained for at least 90 days23

Certified licensees are also required to develop and submit a plan for safe storage of firearms and ammunition during and after retail hours to the Department of State Police, which may reject the plan as inadequate.24  The safe storage plan must supplement security features including “adequate locks, exterior lighting, surveillance cameras, alarm systems, and other anti-theft measures and practices,” and comply with rules established by the Department of State Police.25

Recordkeeping

Certified licensees are also required to make a photocopy of every buyer or transferee’s valid photo ID whenever a firearm sale transaction takes place, and to attach the photocopy to the documentation detailing the record of sale.26

By January 2, 2020 certified licensees that operate retail locations must also maintain an electronic recordkeeping system to keep track of their changing firearm inventory by updating the make, model, caliber or gauge, and serial number of each firearm that is received or sold by the licensee.27

This system must record retail gun sales and purchases within 24 hours of the transaction, and must record shipments of firearms from manufacturers or wholesalers either within five business days of the shipment or within 24 hours of the shipment being unpacked and the firearms placed in the dealer’s inventory.28  These records must be retained at least as long as is required by federal law.29

Other Requirements

Firearms dealers are also subject to state laws governing gun sales generally.  For laws requiring dealers to:

For a list of laws applicable to both licensed and private firearm sellers, please see the Private Sales in Illinois  section.

Notes
  1. See 2017 IL SB 337 ⤴︎
  2. 18 U.S.C. § 922(a)(1)(A). ⤴︎
  3. 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(21)(C). See also, 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3(j) (defining “engaged in the business for the purposes of an Illinois statute that prohibits selling or transferring firearms while engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail without being licensed as a federal firearms dealer).

    That statute states:

    A person “engaged in the business” means a person who devotes time, attention, and labor to engaging in the activity as a regular course of trade or business with the principal objective of livelihood and profit, but does not include a person who makes occasional repairs of firearms or who occasionally fits special barrels, stocks, or trigger mechanisms to firearms.

    “With the principal objective of livelihood and profit” means that the intent underlying the sale or disposition of firearms is predominantly one of obtaining livelihood and pecuniary gain, as opposed to other intents, such as improving or liquidating a personal firearms collection; however, proof of profit shall not be required as to a person who engages in the regular and repetitive purchase and disposition of firearms for criminal purposes or terrorism.
    ⤴︎

  4. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-15.  See also, 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3(j) (defining “engaged in the business for the purposes of an Illinois statute that prohibits selling or transferring firearms while engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail without being licensed as a federal firearms dealer”). ⤴︎
  5. 430 ILCS 68/5-25 ⤴︎
  6. Illinois law defines “immediate family or household member” to mean a person’s “spouse, child, parent, brother, sister, grandparent, or grandchild, whether of the whole blood or half blood or by adoption, or a person who shares a common dwelling.”  People who are not engaged in the business of selling, leasing, or transferring firearms may also more occasionally transfer firearms to other specified family members as a bona fide gift. See 430 ILCS 68/5-25(3); 730 ILCS 5/3-2.7-10; 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 65/3(a-15)(2). ⤴︎
  7. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-25. ⤴︎
  8. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-10. ⤴︎
  9. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-40. ⤴︎
  10. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-40.  The licensee must submit this affidavit within 30 days when a new owner, employee, or other agent begins selling or conducting transfers of firearms for the licensee. Id. at 68/5-40(b). The affidavit must also contain the name and FOID Card number of each owner, employee, or agent who sells or conducts transfers of firearms for the licensee, and if an owner, employee, or agent is not otherwise a resident of Illinois, the licensee must submit an affidavit stating that the owner, employee, or agent has undergone a background check and is not prohibited from owning or possessing firearms. Id. at 68/5-40(a). ⤴︎
  11. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-75. ⤴︎
  12. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-40(a); 430 ILCS 68/5-30. ⤴︎
  13. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-30. ⤴︎
  14. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-60. ⤴︎
  15. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-20. The 500 feet restriction is “measured from the nearest corner of the building holding the retail location to the corner of the school, pre-school, or day care facility building nearest the retail location at the time the retail location seeks licensure.” Id. ⤴︎
  16. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-5. ⤴︎
  17. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-20(b). ⤴︎
  18. Id. ⤴︎
  19. An “inventory” of firearms means “firearms in the possession of an individual or entity for the purpose of sale or transfer.” 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-5. ⤴︎
  20. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-50(c). ⤴︎
  21. A “retail location” is “a store open to the public from which a certified licensee engages in the business of selling, transferring, or facilitating a sale or transfer of a firearm[,]” but does not include events like gun shows where a licensee engages in business “from time to time.” 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-5. ⤴︎
  22. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-50(a). ⤴︎
  23. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-80. ⤴︎
  24. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-55. ⤴︎
  25. Id. ⤴︎
  26. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-20(a). ⤴︎
  27. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-65. ⤴︎
  28. Id. ⤴︎
  29. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-65, 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 68/5-80; 27 CFR 478.129. ⤴︎

Design Safety Standards for Handguns in Illinois

Illinois prohibits any federally licensed firearms dealer, manufacturer, importer, or pawnbroker from manufacturing, selling or delivering to any unlicensed person a handgun having a barrel, slide, frame or receiver which is a die casting of zinc alloy or any other non-homogeneous metal that will melt or deform at a temperature of less than 800 degrees Fahrenheit.1 This prohibition does not apply to private/secondary sales (i.e., transfers by non-firearms dealers).2

In addition to the aforementioned statute regulating junk guns, the Illinois Attorney General may have the authority to regulate junk guns, as well as promulgate other firearms safety standards, pursuant to the Illinois Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business Practices Act, 815 Ill. Comp. Stat. 505/1 et seq. For further details, view the report “The Illinois Attorney General’s Authority to Promulgate Handgun Safety Regulations Under the Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business Practices Act,” prepared by the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence (formerly “Legal Community Against Violence,” and the Firearms Law Center, in collaboration with Illinois Lawyers of Legal Community Against Violence, the Chicago Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Inc. and the MacArthur Justice Center in 2003.3

See our Design Safety Standards for Handguns policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-3(A)(h). ⤴︎
  2. Id. ⤴︎
  3. For general information about the authority of state attorneys general to impose design safety standards on handguns, see Legal Action Project, Center to Prevent Handgun Violence, Targeting Safety (2001), at http://www.bradycenter.org/xshare/pdf/reports/targetingsafety.pdf. ⤴︎

Disarming Prohibited Persons in Illinois

In Illinois, gun owners are generally required to possess a Firearm Owner’s Identification (FOID) card. The Department of State Police has the authority to revoke or temporarily suspend a FOID card if the holder loses his or her eligibility to possess guns.1 A person who receives a revocation notice must:2

  • Surrender his or her FOID card to the local law enforcement agency where the person resides. The local law enforcement agency must provide the person with a receipt and transfer the FOID card to the Department of State Police;
  • Complete a Firearm Disposition Record form which must disclose the make, model, and serial number of each firearm owned by the person, the location where each firearm will be maintained during the prohibited term, and if any firearm will be transferred to another person, the name, address and FOID card number of the transferee. A copy of this form must be provided to the person whose FOID card has been revoked and to the Department of State Police.3

A violation of these requirements is a misdemeanor. If a person who receives a notice of revocation fails to comply with these requirements, the local law enforcement agency may petition the circuit court to issue a warrant to search for and seize the FOID card and firearms in the possession of that person.4

A separate provision of Illinois law states that, if a person is convicted of a felony and receives a sentence of probation or a conditional discharge, the person must physically surrender at a time and place designated by the court his or her Firearm Owner’s Identification Card and any and all firearms in his or her possession.5

If a person is charged with certain crimes, including forcible felony, stalking, domestic battery or any violations of the Illinois Controlled Substances Act, a condition of release on bail must be that the individual surrender all firearms in his or her possession to a law enforcement officer designated by the court and surrender his or her FOID card to the clerk of the circuit court.6 The court may forego this condition if the circumstances of the case do not clearly warrant it or when its imposition would be impracticable.7 If the FOID card is confiscated, the clerk of the circuit court must mail the confiscated card to the Illinois State Police.8 All legally possessed firearms must be returned to the person upon the charges being dismissed, or if the person is found not guilty (unless found not guilty by reason of insanity).9

Firearm Seizure Act

Illinois law provides that any person can bring a complaint before a circuit court that a person possessing a firearm or firearms has threatened to use a firearm illegally. If the court is satisfied that there is any danger of such illegal use of firearms, it must issue a warrant requiring the apprehension of the person for appearance before the court, and authorizing the seizure of any firearm in the person’s possession. The court must order any firearm taken from the person to be kept by the state for safekeeping for a stated period of time no longer than one year. The firearm or firearms must be returned to the person at the end of the stated period.10

Firearms Restraining Orders (Extreme Risk Protection Orders)

In 2018, Illinois enacted the Firearms Restraining Order Act.11 Effective January 1, 2019, this new law will authorize a person’s family or household members,12 as well as law enforcement officers, to petition a circuit court for a civil order preventing a dangerous person from accessing firearms for up to six months.

In order to obtain a Firearms Restraining Order (FRO), the petitioner must file an affidavit or verified petition with the circuit court in the county where the respondent resides alleging that the respondent poses a significant danger of causing personal injury to self or others in the near future by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm. 13 In most cases, the court is required to hold a hearing on the matter within 30 days.

If the judge concludes that there is “clear and convincing evidence” that the respondent is a significant danger with firearms, the court will issue a 6-month FRO prohibiting the respondent from possessing or receiving firearms for the duration of the order.14  If the court issues an FRO, it must also order the respondent to temporarily transfer to local law enforcement any firearms, FOID Card, or concealed carry license in his or her possession.15

In urgent cases, petitioners can request an emergency FRO by filing an affidavit or verified pleading with the court alleging that the respondent poses an “immediate and present danger” of causing personal injury to self or others by having in his or her custody or control, purchasing, possessing, or receiving a firearm.16  In such cases, courts are required to hold an ex parte hearing (without waiting for the respondent to receive notice of the hearing) on the same day the emergency petition is filed or the next day the court is in session.17  If the judge finds probable cause to believe a respondent poses an immediate and present danger of causing personal injury to self or others with firearms, the judge will issue an emergency FRO, which generally lasts for up to 14 days.18 If the court also finds probable cause that the respondent already possesses firearms, the court is also required to issue a search warrant directing a law enforcement agency to seize the respondent’s firearms. The court may, as part of that warrant, direct the law enforcement agency to search the respondent’s residence and other places where the court finds there is probable cause to believe he or she is likely to possess the firearms.19

Upon termination of the FRO, law enforcement holding any of the respondent’s weapons will return them to the respondent after performing a background check to ensure the respondent is legally permitted to possess firearms.

This law provides a standard process for respondents to request that an FRO be lifted and for petitioners to request that the FRO be renewed and extended by six months.20

Illinois law makes it a crime to knowingly present false information in an FRO petition.21

For more information about laws similar to the Firearms Restraining Order, visit our policy page on Extreme Risk Protection Orders.

Domestic Violence Protective Orders

For circumstances when the surrender of firearms are required pursuant to a court’s domestic violence protective order, see the “Removal or Surrender of Firearms When Domestic Violence Restraining/Protective Orders Are Issued” subsection of the Domestic Violence & Firearms in Illinois section.

Admission to Mental Health Facilities

Any mental hospital that admits a person as an inpatient pursuant to the Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities Code must confiscate any firearms in the possession of that person at the time of admission, or at any time the firearms are discovered in the person’s possession during the course of hospitalization.22 The hospital must, as soon as possible following confiscation, transfer custody of the firearms to the appropriate law enforcement agency, and give written notice to the person from whom the firearm was confiscated of the identity and address of the law enforcement agency to which it has given the firearm. The law enforcement agency must maintain possession of any firearm it obtains pursuant to this subsection for a minimum of 90 days, and then dispose of the firearm after that period pursuant to state law.23

Notes
  1. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8 and 430 ILCS 65/8.3. ⤴︎
  2. DSP must also send a notice of the revocation to all law enforcement agencies with jurisdiction to assist with the seizure of the person’s FOID card. 430 ILCS 65/3.1. ⤴︎
  3. 430 Ill. Stat. Comp. 65/9.5(a), (b). ⤴︎
  4. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/9.5(c), (d). ⤴︎
  5. 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-6-3(a)(9). ⤴︎
  6. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/110-10(a)(5). ⤴︎
  7. Id. ⤴︎
  8. Id. ⤴︎
  9. Id. ⤴︎
  10. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 165/0.01 et seq. ⤴︎
  11. See 2017 IL HB 2354 ⤴︎
  12. The Firearms Restraining Order Act defines eligible petitioners to include either a law enforcement officer or a “family member” of the respondent. The Act defines “family member” for these purposes to mean “a spouse, parent, child, or step-child of the respondent, any other person related by blood or present marriage to the respondent, or a person who shares a common dwelling with the respondent.” See Id., Section 5 (“Definitions”). ⤴︎
  13. Id., Section 40(a). ⤴︎
  14. In considering whether to issue a 6-month FRO, the court shall consider evidence including, but not limited to, the following:

    (1) The unlawful and reckless use, display, or brandishing of a firearm by the respondent.

    (2) The history of use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force by the respondent against another person.

    (3) Any prior arrest of the respondent for a felony offense.

    (4) Evidence of the abuse of controlled substances or alcohol by the respondent.

    (5) A recent threat of violence or act of violence by the respondent directed toward himself, herself, or another.

    (6) A violation of an emergency order of protection issued under Section 217 of the Illinois Domestic Violence Act of 1986 or Section 112A-17 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1963 or of an order of protection issued under Section 214 of the Illinois Domestic Violence Act of 1986 or Section 112A-14 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1963.

    (7) A pattern of violent acts or violent threats, including, but not limited to, threats of violence or acts of violence by the respondent directed toward himself, herself, or another.

    See Id., Section 40(e). ⤴︎

  15. Id., Section 35(g) and 40(h). ⤴︎
  16. Id., Section 35. ⤴︎
  17. Id., Section 35(d), (e). ⤴︎
  18. Id., Section 35(i). ⤴︎
  19. Id., Section 35(f), (f-5). ⤴︎
  20. See id., Section 45. ⤴︎
  21. See id., Section 35(c) and 40(c). ⤴︎
  22. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-6(c). ⤴︎
  23. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-6(c). ⤴︎

Domestic Violence & Firearms in Illinois

Illinois requires that a person have a Firearm Owner’s Identification (“FOID”) card to purchase or possess firearms or ammunition.1 An applicant will be denied a FOID card, and a holder of a previously-issued FOID card will have his or her card revoked and seized, if he or she:

  • Was convicted within the past five years for battery, assault, aggravated assault, violation of an order of protection, or a substantially similar offense in another jurisdiction, in which a firearm was used or possessed;2 or
  • Has ever been convicted of domestic battery or aggravated domestic battery in Illinois or a substantially similar offense in another jurisdiction.3

Under Illinois law, a person commits domestic battery if he or she knowingly, without legal justification: (1) causes bodily harm to a family or household member, or (2) makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with a family or household member.4 “Family or household members” include spouses, former spouses, parents, children, stepchildren and other persons related by blood or by present or prior marriage, persons who share or formerly shared a common dwelling, persons who have or allegedly have a child in common, persons who share or allegedly share a blood relationship through a child, persons who have or have had a dating or engagement relationship, persons with disabilities and their personal assistants, and certain caregivers.5 A person commits aggravated domestic battery if, in committing domestic battery, he or she intentionally or knowingly cause great bodily harm, permanent disability, or disfigurement.6

In addition to the aforementioned prohibitions, a FOID card will be denied or revoked if the applicant or cardholder is prohibited from acquiring or possessing firearms or ammunition by federal law.7 Federal law prohibits the purchase and possession of firearms and ammunition by anyone convicted of a “misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.”8 Illinois law provides a procedure for determining whether certain crimes qualify as “misdemeanor crimes of domestic violence” for purposes of federal law.9 When a person is charged with a crime that may qualify, the state may serve notice on the defendant alleging that a conviction would subject defendant to the federal firearm prohibitions.10 The defendant may admit that the conviction would subject him or her to the federal prohibitions or, if the defendant says nothing or denies the claim, the state bears the burden of proving to the court beyond a reasonable doubt that the offense is one that would constitute a “misdemeanor crime of domestic violence” under federal law.11

If, under the procedures outlined above, a court determines that a person has been convicted of a “misdemeanor crime of domestic violence” that would disqualify him or her from purchasing or possessing firearms under federal law, then the court clerk must notify the Department of State Police Firearm Owner’s Identification Card Office who will then report that determination to the FBI.12

In Illinois, upon conviction of domestic battery or aggravated domestic battery, the court must advise the defendant orally or in writing that, “[a]n individual convicted of domestic battery [or aggravated domestic battery] may be subject to federal criminal penalties for possessing, transporting, shipping, or receiving any firearm or ammunition in violation of the federal Gun Control Act of 1968 (18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(8) and (9)).”13

Firearm Prohibitions for Persons Subject to Domestic Violence Restraining/Protective Orders

Illinois law provides that a person who is subject to an existing order of protection, interim order of protection, emergency order of protection, or plenary order of protection issued under the Code of Criminal Procedure may not lawfully possess weapons under the Firearm Owners Identification Card Act.14

In  addition, a court may issue a civil order under the Illinois Domestic Violence Act prohibiting a person from possessing firearms if that person is subject to a protection order meeting the following criteria:

  • the order was issued after a hearing of which such person received actual notice, and at which such person had an opportunity to participate;
  • the order restrains such person from harassing, stalking, or threatening an intimate partner of such person or child of such intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child; and
  • the order (i) includes a finding that such person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of such intimate partner or child; or (ii) by its terms explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against such intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury.15

However, a court may issue a civil emergency protective order prohibiting a person from possessing firearms without giving notice to the subject of the order if the court determines that the harm posed by the subject’s continued possession of firearms would be likely to occur if the subject was given notice of the petitioner’s efforts to obtain judicial relief.16

The Illinois Department of State Police (“DSP”) must deny an application for, or revoke and seize, a FOID card (thereby prohibiting such person from purchasing or possessing a firearm or ammunition), if DSP finds that the applicant or cardholder is or was at the time of issuance subject to an existing order of protection.17 Prior to receiving a FOID card, an applicant must prove that he or she is not subject to an existing order of protection prohibiting him or her from possessing a firearm or ammunition.18

A court that is issuing a “stalking no contact order” may also prohibit the defendant from possessing a FOID card or from possessing or purchasing firearms.19 In such a situation, the court must confiscate the subject’s FOID card and immediately return the card to DSP.20

Removal or Surrender of Firearms Upon Conviction for a Domestic Violence Misdemeanor

A person convicted of a crime that qualifies, pursuant to the procedures established by Illinois law,21 as a “misdemeanor crime of domestic violence” under federal law must physically surrender his or her FOID card and any and all firearms in his or her possession at a time and place designated by the court. The court must return the person’s FOID card to DSP.22

Removal or Surrender of Firearms When Domestic Violence Restraining/Protective Orders Are Issued

If a domestic violence protection order issued under the Illinois Domestic Violence Act prohibits a respondent from possessing firearms, any FOID card in the respondent’s possession must be ordered by the court to be turned over to a local law enforcement agency, which must then mail the FOID card to DSP for safekeeping. The court must also issue a warrant for the seizure of any firearm in respondent’s possession, to be kept by local law enforcement for safekeeping.23 If the protective order is issued pursuant to the Illinois Code of Criminal Procedure, the court must order that any firearms in respondent’s possession be turned over to a person with a valid FOID card.24 Removal and surrender procedures under the Illinois Code of Criminal Procedure are otherwise identical to those contained in the Illinois Domestic Violence Act.  The period of safekeeping must be equivalent to the duration of the order and any firearms and respondent’s FOID card, if unexpired, must be returned to the respondent at the time the order of protection expires.25

Upon expiration of the period of safekeeping, if the firearms or FOID card cannot be returned to respondent because respondent cannot be located, fails to respond to requests to retrieve the firearms, or is not lawfully eligible to possess a firearm, upon petition from the local law enforcement agency, the court may order the agency to destroy the firearms, use the firearms for training purposes or for any other application as deemed appropriate by the agency, or turn the guns over to a third party lawfully eligible to possess firearms who does not reside with respondent.26

Protective orders prohibiting firearm possession under the Illinois Domestic Violence Act are available to the following persons:

  • Any person abused by a family or household member;
  • Any high-risk adult with disabilities who is abused, neglected, or exploited by a family or household member;
  • Any minor child or dependent adult in the care of such person; and
  • Any person residing or employed at a private home or public shelter which is housing an abused family or household member.27

Removal or Surrender of Firearms at the Scene of a Domestic Violence Incident

Illinois requires law enforcement to seize and remove firearms at the scene of a domestic violence incident only if there is probable cause to believe that the particular firearms were used to commit the incident of abuse.28 A firearm must be returned to its owner when no longer needed as evidence.29

See our Domestic Violence & Firearms policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of this issue.

Notes
  1. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(1), (2). ⤴︎
  2. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(a)(2)(viii); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8(k). ⤴︎
  3. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(a)(2) (ix); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8(l). ⤴︎
  4. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/12-3.2(a)(1)(2). ⤴︎
  5. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-3(3). ⤴︎
  6. 720 Ill. Stat. Comp. Stat. 5/12-3.3(a). ⤴︎
  7. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8(n). ⤴︎
  8. 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(9). ⤴︎
  9. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-11.1(a)-(c). ⤴︎
  10. Id. ⤴︎
  11. Id. ⤴︎
  12. 20 Ill. Comp. Stat. 2630/2.2; 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-11.2. ⤴︎
  13. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/12-3.2(d). A notation must be made in the court file that this admonition was given. ⤴︎
  14. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-14(b)(14.5)(A). ⤴︎
  15. 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/214(b)(14). ⤴︎
  16. 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/217(3)(i). ⤴︎
  17. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8.2. ⤴︎
  18. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/4(a)(2)(vii). ⤴︎
  19. 740 Ill. Comp. Stat. 21/80(b)(4). ⤴︎
  20. 740 Ill. Comp. Stat. 21/80(e). ⤴︎
  21. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-11.1(a)-(c). ⤴︎
  22. 730 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/5-6-3(a)(9). ⤴︎
  23. 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/214(b)(14)(a). ⤴︎
  24. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-14(b)(14.5)(B). ⤴︎
  25. Id. ⤴︎
  26. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-14(b)(14.5)(D); 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/214(b)(14)(c). ⤴︎
  27. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5-112A-4; 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/201(a). ⤴︎
  28. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-30(a)(2); 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/304(a)(2). ⤴︎
  29. 725 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/112A-30(c); 750 Ill. Comp. Stat. 60/304(c). ⤴︎