A critical component of addressing gun violence is ensuring accurate information about gun laws and the gun violence crisis reaches the public. Our brochure, The Truth about Gun Violence in America, addresses gun lobby myths and answers common questions about the issue. Explore the PDF of the publication, and see below for complete citations for all the facts used.
Gun law myths
The Only Thing that Stops a Bad Guy with a Gun Is a Good Guy with a Gun
Whenever a mass shooting makes headlines, inevitably the gun lobby will claim that the tragedy could have been averted had more guns been present. It’s true that a good guy with a gun—such as an active duty police officer with extensive training for crisis situations—may stop an active shooter. But a gun in untrained hands is a recipe for disaster, and the training requirements for carrying a gun in public are weak or nonexistent in most states.1 Studies have shown people are far more likely to shoot themselves or other bystanders than they are to stop a gunman, and the presence of guns can confuse law enforcement about the identity of the “bad guy.”2 This gun lobby talking point may be an effective sales ploy, but were it the slightest bit true, the United States, with its millions of concealed carry permits,3 would be the safest country on earth. Instead, our violence outpaces peer nations by staggering margins,4 and over a million Americans have been shot by guns in the past decade.5
The Ratio of Criminal Homicides to Justifiable Homicides is 34:16
New Gun Laws Are a Slippery Slope to Confiscation
The gun lobby wants Americans to believe that confiscation is right around the corner because it can’t admit the truth—it’s terrified that making it harder for felons, domestic abusers, and the severely mentally ill to get guns will cut into profits. Nevermind that no serious organization advocates for mass firearm confiscation, that the Supreme Court affirmed the right to keep a gun for self-defense,7 or that collecting America’s 357 million firearms8 would be a logistical impossibility. States like California, Hawaii, and Massachusetts have had smart gun laws in place for years, and guns remain legal and common. The fear of confiscation also drives gun sales. During the Obama administration, sales spiked whenever the president proposed new gun laws,9 making the slippery slope an attractive and pro table myth for the gun lobby. In reality, smart gun laws are about saving lives and ensuring responsible ownership, not taking away guns.
6 states have closed the private sale loophole by requiring background checks on all handgun sales and transfers.
13 states have closed the private sale loophole by requiring background checks on all firearm sales and transfers.10
We Just Need to Enforce the Laws on the Books
Enforcing laws already on the books is a necessity, but weak laws and loopholes backed by the gun lobby have made it too easy for people to get guns illegally. And our current gun laws aren’t preventing guns from falling into dangerous hands—many weapons used in shootings are bought in private sales that don’t require a background check.11 The best way to enforce the existing laws prohibiting dangerous individuals, like domestic abusers and felons, from possessing rearms is to close the loophole for private sales. But not only does the gun lobby resist fixing gaps in current law, it actively impedes enforcement by lobbying Congress to underfund the FBI’s background checks system and the ATF.12 Law enforcement associations vehemently oppose the gun lobby’s top policy priorities, such as deregulating silencers and eliminating concealed carry permits, because they recognize the chaos these reckless laws will introduce.13
Private Sales, Public Danger14
People Will Find a Way to Harm Themselves or Others No Matter What
By design, guns are inherently deadly objects. When we make it more difficult for high-risk individuals to get guns, we also make it more difficult for them to take human life, including their own. Take domestic abuse—if a firearm is present, a victim is 12 times more likely to die.15 Suicide attempts with guns are 42 times more fatal than attempts with sharp objects or drug overdoses16 and in spite of common misconceptions, 90% of suicide survivors don’t go on to end their own lives.17 Mass shooters choose guns precisely because they are so deadly and so easy to obtain. ISIS and Al-Qaeda have even recommended that terrorists exploit America’s weak gun laws to easily acquire assault weapons and murder civilians.18 When violent attackers opt for less lethal weapons like knives or vehicles, there are far fewer casualties,19 and in countries with strong gun laws, like the United Kingdom, overall homicide rates are 18 times lower than in the United States.20 Means matter, and violence is far from inevitable.
States with the highest rates of gun ownership have four times as many gun suicides, and as a result, two times as many overall suicides.21
Gun Death Rate per 100,00022
Gun law questions
Do Gun Laws Work?
The gun lobby claims that any attempt at prevention is futile because criminals, by definition, don’t follow the law. The truth is that since the creation of the national background check system, 2.8 million gun sales to dangerous individuals have been stopped.23 The correlation between smart gun laws and safer communities is undeniable. Year after year, the Law Center’s Gun Law State Scorecard finds that states with strong laws, like Massachusetts, have far lower gun death rates (3.0 people per 100,000) while states with weak laws, like Louisiana, have correspondingly high gun death rates (20.3 per 100,000).24 Background checks are particularly effective at saving lives—after Connecticut closed its private sale loophole, the state’s gun homicide rate dropped 40%.25
How Does the Second Amendment Impact Gun Laws?
In the landmark 2008 case DC v. Heller, the Supreme Court ruled for the first time that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of responsible, law-abiding citizens to keep a handgun in the home for self-defense. In the majority opinion, Justice Scalia wrote, “The Second Amendment is not unlimited… [it is] not a right to keep and carry any weapon whatsoever in any and others have led over manner,” and identified categories of “presumptively lawful” regulations.26 The Court has since declined to hear over 70 Second Amendment challenges, affirming the constitutionality of the vast majority of gun safety laws.27
Since Heller, the gun lobby and others have filed over 1100 challenges to gun laws on Second Amendment grounds—and the courts have rejected 94% of them.
Who Supports Smart Gun Laws?
Nearly everyone. Commonsense solutions to gun violence, like background checks and extreme risk protection orders, are exceptionally popular, not just among all Americans, but among Republicans, gun owners, and even NRA members.28 The gun lobby’s marketing focuses on painting gun safety as a bitterly divisive cultural issue and a political third rail.29 And it’s worked—most Americans think there’s far more disagreement about gun laws than there actually is, which helps strengthen the gun lobby’s influence over leaders who fear political reprisal.30 In reality, voters far and wide support smart gun laws, not just in polls but in ballot initiatives and elections, where candidates running on gun safety platforms scored major victories in 2016.31
Overwhelming Support for Universal Background Checks32
45 states and DC have passed 198 new, lifesaving smart gun laws since the massacre at Sandy Hook.
Three states passed lifesaving gun safety reforms by ballot initiative in 2016: California, Nevada, and Washington.
Does a Gun in the Home Make You Safer?
The gun lobby has spent millions trying to convince Americans the only safe way to live is with a gun in reach at all times. However, study after study proves that the choice to keep a gun in the home creates far more risk than it prevents.33 Statistically speaking, home invasions are rare, but shootings by a relative or acquaintance are all too common.34 For every time a gun is used in self-defense in the home, there are seven assaults or murders, 11 suicide attempts, and four accidental shootings.35 When a CDC study exposed these risks, Congress passed a gun lobby–backed law effectively banning government research into gun violence prevention.36 Guns in the home pose an elevated risk to children,37 which is why laws requiring the safe storage of firearms and innovations like smart guns, which use fingerprint scanners and other technology to prevent unauthorized firing, can have such lifesaving impact.
1.7 million children live in homes with loaded and unlocked firearms.38
Urban Gun Violence
Gun violence is disproportionately concentrated in cities, particularly underserved communities of color.
Black men comprise just 6% of the US population but over 50% of all firearm homicides.39
From 2001 to 2012, more women were murdered in the US by an intimate partner using a gun than the number of US troops killed in action during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan combined.40
Gun Violence Kills an Average of 33,512 Americans Every Year41
- “Open Carrying,” Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, http://lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/policy-areas/firearms-in-public-places/open-carrying/; “Concealed Weapons Permitting,” Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, http://lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/policy-areas/firearms-in-public-places/concealed-weapons-permitting/. ⤴︎
- “Armed Citizens are Not the Answer to Mass Shootings,” Violence Policy Center, June 2017, http://concealedcarrykillers.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Armed-Citizens-not-the-Answer-Fact-Sheet-June-2017.pdf; Mark Follman, “More Guns, More Mass Shootings—Coincidence?” Mother Jones, Dec. 15, 2012, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/09/mass-shootings-investigation/; Molly Hennessy-Fiske, “Dallas Police Chief: Open Carry Makes Things Confusing During Mass Shootings,” L.A. Times, July 11, 2016, http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-dallas-chief-20160711-snap-story.html; David Hemenway and Sara J. Solnick, “The epidemiology of self-defense gun use: Evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007–2011,” Preventive medicine 79 (2015): 22–27; David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael, and Matthew Miller, “Gun use in the United States: Results from two National Surveys.” Injury Prevention 6, no. 4 (2000): 263–267; John P. May et al., “Medical Care Solicitation by Criminals with Gunshot Wound Injuries: a Survey of Washington, DC, Jail Detainees,” Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 48, no. 1 (2000): 130–132. John P. May, David Hemenway, and Alicia Hall, “Do Criminals go to the Hospital When They are Shot?” Injury Prevention 8, no. 3 (2002): 236–238. Joseph J. Vince, Jr., Timothy Wolfe, and Layton Field, “Firearms Training & Self-Defense,” Mount St. Mary’s University and the National Gun Victims Action Council (2015). ⤴︎
- John Burnett, “Does Carrying a Pistol Make You Safer?” NPR, April 12, 2016, http://www.npr.org/2016/04/12/473391286/does-carrying-a-pistol-make-you-safer; U.S. Gov’t Accountability Office, GAO-12-717, “Gun Control: States’ Laws and Requirements for Concealed Carry Permits Vary Across the Nation,” July, 2012, http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/592552.pdf. ⤴︎
- Erin Grinshteyn and David Hemenway, “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010,” Am. J. Med. 129 (2016): 266–273, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551975; Kevin Quealy and Margot Sanger-Katz, “Compare These Gun Death Rates: The U.S. Is in a Different World,” N.Y. Times, June 13, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/upshot/compare-these-gun-death-rates-the-us-is-in-a-different-world.html?_r=0. ⤴︎
- See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), “Fatal Injury Data and Non-Fatal Injury Data,” last accessed May 17, 2017, https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/. From 2006 to 2015, 326,128 Americans were killed by gunshots and 765,743 were hospitalized or treated in emergency departments for non-fatal gunshot injuries. ⤴︎
- See Christopher Ingraham, “Guns in America: For Every Criminal Killed in Self-Defense, 34 Innocent People Die,” Washington Post (Jun. 19, 2015) (citing Violence Policy Center, “Firearm Justifiable Homicides and Non-Fatal Self-Defense Gun Use: An Analysis of Federal Bureau of Investigation and National Crime Victimization Survey Data” (Jun. 2015), at http://www.vpc.org/studies/justifiable15.pdf). ⤴︎
- District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008). ⤴︎
- Christopher Ingraham, “There are now more guns than people in the United States,” Wash. Post, Oct. 5, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/10/05/guns-in-the-united-states-one-for-every-man-woman-and-child-and-then-some/?utm_term=.56cc7cb21b4f. ⤴︎
- Gregor Aisch and Josh Keller, “What Happens After Calls for New Gun Restrictions? Sales Go Up,” N.Y. Times, Dec. 10, 2015, updated June 13, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/12/10/us/gun-sales-terrorism-obama-restrictions.html. ⤴︎
- See the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence’s Universal Background Checks Policy Page, at http://lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/policy-areas/background-checks/universal-background-checks. ⤴︎
- Of inmates serving time for an offense committed with a firearm who were prohibited purchasers when they bought the gun in question, 96.1% acquired it through a sale that did not legally require a background check. Katherine A. Vittes, Jon S. Vernick, and Daniel W. Webster, “Legal status and source of offenders’ firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership,” Inj. Prev., 19 (2013): 26-31, http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/19/1/26. ⤴︎
- Alan Berlow, “How the NRA Hobbled the ATF,” Mother Jones, Feb. 11, 2013, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/02/atf-gun-laws-nra/; Alex Yablon, “What Happened to the $1.3 Billion Congress Approved to Improve Federal Gun Background Checks?” The Trace, July 27, 2015, https://www.thetrace.org/2015/07/nics-background-check-congress-spending/; Sahil Kapur, “The NRA’s Orwellian Games on Guns and the Mentally Ill,” Talking Points Memo, June 28, 2013, http://talkingpointsmemo.com/dc/the-nra-s-orwellian-games-on-guns-and-the-mentally-ill. ⤴︎
- See “Statement of Chairman Jim Johnson on H.R. 367 and S.59, the Hearing Protection Act of 2017,” National Law Enforcement Partnership to Prevent Gun Violence, https://www.lepartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/LEP_Statement-on-The-Hearing-Protection-Act-of-2017_3-10-17.pdf (opposing deregulation of silencers); Kathleen Ronayne, “Gov. Sununu Signs Concealed Carry Bill Into Law,” Associated Press, Feb. 22, 2017, http://www.wmur.com/article/gov-sununu-signs-concealed-carry-bill-into-law/8964837; Journal Editorial Bd., “Our View: It’s Reckless to Kill Safety Training for Concealed Carry Permits,” Winston-Salem J., June 12, 2017, http://www.journalnow.com/opinion/editorials/our-view-going-ballistic/article_f75afcf0-c568-5ae8-b913-0983894e5788.html; Michele Gorman, “Guns in America: How South Carolina Police are Taking on the NRA and Constitutional Carry Legislation,” Newsweek, May 1, 2017, http://www.newsweek.com/charleston-police-challenge-south-carolina-lawmakers-constitutional-carry-592522; Michael Gerstein, “Michigan House OKs Bill to Carry Guns Without Permits,” The Detroit News, June 7, 2017, http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/2017/06/07/concealed-guns-without-permits/102600024/. ⤴︎
- See Katherine Vittes, et al., “Legal status and Source of Offenders’ Firearms In States With the Least Stringent Criteria for Gun Ownership, Journal of Injury Prevention, 19. 26–31 (2013); Matthew Miller, et al, “Firearm Acquisition Without Background Checks: Results of a National Survey,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 166, No. 4, 233–39 (Feb. 2017).
- Linda E. Saltzman, et al., “Weapon Involvement and Injury Outcomes in Family and Intimate Assaults,” JAMA 267 (1992): 3043-47 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1588718. ⤴︎
- Catherine W. Barber and Matthew J. Miller, “Reducing a Suicidal Person’s Access to Lethal Means of Suicide,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 47 (2014): S264-72, http://actionallianceforsuicideprevention.org/sites/actionallianceforsuicideprevention.org/files/Reducing%20a%20Suicidal%20Persons%20Access%20to%20Lethal.pdf. See also, Rebecca Spicer and Ted R. Miller, “Suicide Acts in 8 States: Incidence and Case Fatality Rates by Demographics and Method,” Am. J. Pub. Health 90 (2000): Table 2, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1446422/pdf/11111261.pdf. ⤴︎
- Means Matter, Harvard T.H. Chan Sch. of Pub. Health: “Attempters’ Longterm Survival,” http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/means-matter/survival. ⤴︎
- In a 2011 Al Qaeda video, a spokesman urged supporters to obtain weapons in the United States to commit terrorism, “America is absolutely awash with easily obtainable firearms… [y]ou can go down to a gun show at the local convention center and come away with a fully automatic assault rifle, without a background check, and most likely without having to show an identification card. So what are you waiting for?” Sudip Bhattacharya, “Al Qaeda Video Resurfaces Claiming How Easy it is to Buy Guns in U.S.,” CNN, April 12, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/11/politics/al-qaeda-video/index.html. A 2017 ISIS propaganda magazine states, “In most U.S. states, anything from a single-shot shotgun all the way up to a semi-automatic AR-15 rifle can be purchased at showrooms or through online sales — by way of private dealers — with no background checks, and without requiring either an ID or a gun license.” Derek Hawkins, “Islamic State Magazine Steers Followers to U.S. Gun Shows for ‘Easy’ Access to Weapons,” Wash. Post, May 5, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/05/05/islamic-state-magazine-steers-jihadists-to-u-s-gun-shows-for-easy-access-to-weapons/?utm_term=.3cf1917775ad. ⤴︎
- For example, in a striking contrast, on the same day 20 children and 6 adults were killed by a gunman in the Sandy Hook Elementary School, 22 children and one adult were stabbed by a man wielding a knife outside a primary school in China. All of the stabbing victims survived. The Associated Press, “Man Stabs 22 Children in China,” N.Y. Times, Dec. 14, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/15/world/asia/man-stabs-22-children-in-china.html. ⤴︎
- Erin Grinshteyn and David Hemenway, “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010,” Am. J. Med. 129 (2016): Table 4, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551975. ⤴︎
- Matthew Miller, et al, “Guns and Suicide in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 672- 73 (2008); Matthew Miller, et al, “Firearms and Suicide in the United States: Is Risk Independent of Underlying Suicidal Behavior?,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Table 3 (2013), available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/08/22/aje.kwt197.full. ⤴︎
- Erin Grinshteyn and David Hemenway, “Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010,” The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 129, Issue 3, Pages 266–73 (Mar. 2016). ⤴︎
- Ronald J. Frandsen et al., “Background Checks for Firearm Transfers, 2010 – Statistical Tables,” U.S. Dep’t of Justice: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Feb. 2013, http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/bcft10st.pdf (statistics covering the period March 1, 1994 – Dec. 31, 2010). ⤴︎
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), “Fatal Injury Data,” last accessed May 17, 2017, https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/. ⤴︎
- See “Connecticut Handgun Licensing Law Associated With 40 Percent Drop in Gun Homicides,” John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, June 11, 2015, http://www.jhsph.edu/news/news-releases/2015/connecticut-handgun-licensing-law-associated-with-40-percent-drop-in-gun-homicides.html. ⤴︎
- District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570, 626-27 (2008). ⤴︎
- “Post-Heller Litigation Summary,” Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, April 26, 2017, http://lawcenter.giffords.org/post-heller/. ⤴︎
- An overwhelming majority of Americans support background checks; see Kim Parker, et al., “America’s Complex Relationship with Guns,” Pew Research Center, June 22, 2017, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2017/06/22/americas-complex-relationship-with-guns/ (finding that 84% of respondents support background checks for private sales); Sarah Dutton et al., “9 in 10 Back Universal Gun Background Checks,” CBS News, Jan. 17, 2013, http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-34222_162-57564386-10391739/9-in-10-back-universal-gun-background-checks/; Dana Blanton, “Fox News poll: Twice as Many Favor More Guns over Banning Guns to Reduce Crime,” Fox News, Jan. 18, 2013, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/01/18/fox-news-poll-twice-as-many-favor-more-guns-over-banning-guns-to-reduce-violent/. In 2016, an extreme risk protection order law on the ballot in Washington passed by an overwhelming majority of voters. “Washington Initiative 1491–Firearms Access–Results: Approved,” N.Y. Times, Dec. 13, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/elections/results/washington-ballot-measure-1491-firearms-access. ⤴︎
- Jim Vertuno and Juan Lozano, “At Its Convention, NRA Warns of a ‘Culture War’,” Associated Press, May 4, 2013, https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2013/05/03/nra-official-culture-war-more-than-gun-rights/9BtizEiOIP9Xd0Whomy29J/story.html. ⤴︎
- “Why the Gun Lobby is Winning: To Prevent Gun Deaths, Politicians Offer–More Guns,” Economist, April 4, 2015, http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21647627-prevent-gun-deaths-politicians-offermore-guns-why-gun-lobby-winning. ⤴︎
- “Victories for Gun Safety in 2016: Gabby & Mark on the 2016 Elections,” Americans for Responsible Solutions, Nov. 9, 2016, http://americansforresponsiblesolutions.org/2016/11/09/victories-gun-safety-2016-gabby-mark-2016-elections/. ⤴︎
- See Carl Bialik, “Most Americans Agree with Obama That More Gun Buyers Should Get Background Checks,” FiveThirtyEight (Jan. 5, 2016) (citing October 2015 CBS News/New York Times poll), available at https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/most-americans-agree-with-obama-that-more-gun-buyers-should-get-background-checks; Public Policy Polling, “April 19-20, 2017 Survey of 661 Gun Owners — National Survey Results,” at http://americansforresponsiblesolutions.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/GunOwnerResults.pdf. ⤴︎
- See, e.g., Arthur L. Kellerman et al., “Injuries and Deaths Due to Firearms in the Home,” J. Trauma 45 (1998): 263, 266, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9715182; Linda L. Dahlberg et al., “Guns in the Home and Risk of a Violent Death in the Home: Findings from a National Study,” Am. J. Epidemiology 160 (2004): 929, 935, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15522849; Garen J. Wintemute, “Guns, Fear, the Constitution, and the Public’s Health,” New Eng. J. Med. 358 (2008): 1421-1424, http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/NEJMp0800859; Douglas Wiebe, “Homicide and Suicide Risks Associated with Firearms in the Home: A National Case-control Study,” Ann. of Emerg. Med. 41 (2003): 771, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12764330. ⤴︎
- See, e.g., David Hemenway, “Risks and Benefits of a Gun in the Home,” Am. J. of Lifestyle Med. 5, Feb. 2, 2011, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1559827610396294; Evan DeFilippis and Devin Hughes, “The Bogus Claims of the NRA’s Favorite Social Scientist, Debunked,” Vox, Aug. 30, 2016, http://www.vox.com/2016/8/30/12700222/nra-social-scientist-claims-debunked; Catherine W. Barber and Matthew J. Miller, “Reducing a Suicidal Person’s Access to Lethal Means of Suicide,” Am. J. Prev. Med. 47 (2014): S264-72, http://actionallianceforsuicideprevention.org/sites/actionallianceforsuicideprevention.org/files/Reducing%20a%20Suicidal%20Persons%20Access%20to%20Lethal.pdf; Linda L. Dahlberg, et al., “Guns in the Home and Risk of a Violent Death in the Home: Findings from a National Study,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 160 (2004): 929, 930, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15522849; Douglas Wiebe, “Homicide and Suicide Risks Associated with Firearms in the Home: A National Case-control Study,” Ann. of Emerg. Med. 41 (2003): 771, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12764330. ⤴︎
- Arthur L. Kellerman et al., “Injuries and Deaths Due to Firearms in the Home,” J. Trauma 45 (1998): 263, 266, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9715182. ⤴︎
- “Gun Violence Prevention Efforts Hampered by Lack of Research and Funding,” Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, http://lawcenter.giffords.org/effectiveness-gun-violence-prevention-efforts-hampered-by-lack-of-research-and-funding/. ⤴︎
- David Hemenway, “Risks and Benefits of a Gun in the Home,” Am. J. of Lifestyle Med. 5, Feb. 2, 2011; David C. Grossman, et al., “Gun Storage Practices and Risk of Youth Suicide and Unintentional Firearm Injuries,” JAMA 293 (2005): 707, 711-13, http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/200330. ⤴︎
- Catherine A. Okoro, et al, “Prevalence of Household Firearms and Firearm-Storage Practices in the 50 States and the District of Columbia: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002,” Pediatrics, Vol. 116, e370, e371-e372 (Sept. 2005), at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/3/ e370.full.pdf+html. ⤴︎
- Based on analysis of CDC Fatal Injury Reports. In 2015, 6,821 out of the nation’s 12,979 gun homicide victims were black males (53%). Black males comprised 19,995,887 of the nation’s 321,418,820 total population (6%). ⤴︎
- Arkadi Gerney and Chelsea Parsons, “Women Under the Gun: How Gun Violence Affects Women and 4 Policy Solutions to Better Protect Them,” Center for American Progress (Jun. 18, 2014), at https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/guns-crime/reports/2014/06/18/91998/women-under-the-gun. ⤴︎
- For gun death and injury statistics, see CDC Fatal and Non-Fatal Injury Reports, 2015, available at https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html. For statistics regarding the fiscal cost of gun violence, see Mark Follman, et al, “The True Cost of Gun Violence in America, Mother Jones (2015), available at http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2015/04/true-cost-of-gun-violence-in-america. ⤴︎